Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
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Environmental Modification Convention
There seems to be a confusion between the techniques and their effects and the Convention to totally ignores the technological developments of the two last decades. Research and development are not prohibited, nor is the use of such techniques against a non-State Party.
Five years after the entry into force of this Convention, a conference of the States Parties to the Convention shall be convened by the Depositary at Geneva, Switzerland. Research will then expand as the Vietnam War unfolds. Stating that under existing international customary law it is already prohibited to cause significant damage to the environment of other States or areas beyond national jurisdiction.
Such a complaint should include all relevant information as well as all possible evidence supporting ItS validity. Use dmy dates from July All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from January Articles with permanently dead external links.
These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: There shall be no voting on matters of substance.
This Convention shall be registered by the Depositary in accordance with Article of the Charter of the United Nations. Many states do not regard this as a complete ban on the use of herbicides in warfare, such as Agent Orangebut it does require case-by-case consideration.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip
An advance was enmld on the area of research and development, which was never explicitly prohibited ennmod the Convention. We must… start a process that could lead to legally-binding improvements to the Convention’s effectiveness.
Most problematic is the lack of agreement on what constitutes a ‘deliberate manipulation of a natural process’ Article II.
States parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another State party article I.
The Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene such a conference if one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively.
The historian of science James Fleming noticed that the fantasies of controlling weather and climate have always been closely related to commercial and military interests. Any State which does not sign the Convention before its entry into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time.
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Article X This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited cohvention the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States. States Parties in a position to do so shall contribute, alone or together with other States or international organizations, to international economic and scientific co-operation in the preservation, improvement and peaceful utilization of the environment, with due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world.
The Convention now has 77 States Parties. The Security Council shall inform the States Parties of the results of the investigation. Thereafter it shall enter into force for any remaining State Party on the date of deposit of its instrument of convenion.
Skip to main content. The answer is not clear because there are interpretational difficulties associated with key elements of the Convention. The 2nd Review Conference’s major accomplishment was in clearly establishing that “low tech” environmental modification such as fire and herbicides is prohibited.
At the end of the Gulf War, the Security Council, established liability for the environmental damages caused by Iraq as a condition to the cessation of hostilities Resolution of April 3, Inat the 6th Enmid of the UN General Assembly, when addressing the environmental devastation produced by Iraq in Kuwait, some countries had specifically referred to ENMOD’s applicability to those events.
Whilst in these two instruments the term “environment” is preceded by the adjective “natural”, the ENMOD Convention speaks of the “environment” without any attributive.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
My purpose, on November 6th, was to remind that the environment, which is always a collateral victim of conflicts and military activities, can also become a weapon in itself, and it is urgent that we concern ourselves with the legal instruments designed to prevent that risk.
This Convention shall be open to all States for signature. However, to respond to concerns raised by the prowess of the sorcerer’s apprentices, the law of armed conflict goes beyond this mere invitation to protection. As early as the s, military research focused on processes capable of disrupting enjod, and the first experiments of environmental modification techniques were born in the late 40s with the CIRRUS project, the first major scientific effort of the US Army to cause precipitation by seeding clouds with chemicals, or “cloud seeding”.
Following the US decision of July to renounce the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, the resolution by the US Senate calling for an international agreement “prohibiting the use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war”, and an in-depth review by the Department of Defense of the military aspects of weather and other environmental modification techniques, US decided to seek agreement with the Soviet Union to explore the possibilities of an international agreement.
Echoing, to an extent, Finland and The Netherlands, Canada said: Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to cooperate in carrying out any investigation which the Security Council may initiate, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, on the basis of the complaint received by the Council.
For the purposes set forth in paragraph 1 of this article, the Depositary shall within one month of the receipt of a request from any State Party to this Convention, convene a Consultative Committee of Experts. The result was satisfactory to the Pentagon, and the operation was continued from to Sweden was disappointed that such proposal had not been accepted by the ebmod Views Read Edit View history.
Against this background, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has initiated a process of soliciting the views of the States parties to the Convention on the convening of the Third Review conference of the States parties to the Convention, as follows: On herbicides, the Conference agreed that their use would constitute an environmental modification technique as indicated in Article II.
However, a call for broader adherence will not snmod any more than a similar urging by convejtion First Review Conference unless is accompanied by action that addresses the fundamental cause of low adherence to the ENMOD Convention, its perceived irrelevance to the real security of States.
HYLTENIUS Sweden said his delegation welcomed the consensus on the prohibition of convenhion as a method of warfare, which it considered to be an important complementary element to the draft Chemical Weapons Convention. The final text on Article II in the Final Declaration, containing the expression “any” hostile use as well as “any” environmental modification technique was meant to solve the controversy once for all.
This decision more firmly established a broader interpretation of the scope the convention and put to rest the minority view sometimes promoted by the US that ENMOD was manily a “future tech” or “high tech” convention. The Depositary shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession and the date of the entry into force of this Convention and of any amendments thereto, as well as of the receipt of other notices.
Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to the Convention. These are not enough but among them are the military powers: List of parties to the Environmental Modification Convention. On these questions, a must-read is: